Granulated blast furnace slag is primarily used in Europe for the production of Portland blast furnace cement. The chemistry of steelmaking slag also makes it a contender for adsorption of H2S and metalloids from marine environments. Despite the global CO2 reduction targets, the IEA assumes that by 2050 worldwide steel consumption will increase by 30 % compared to today, with an increase of 400 % being forecast for individual countries such as India [7]. Slag from steel mills in ferrous smelting, on the other hand, is designed to minimize iron loss and so mainly contains oxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, and aluminium. Depending on which of these production processes is used, one speaks of blast furnace slag or steelworks slag. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has modified and enforced various norms for proper recycling and utilization of iron and steel slag, rather than disposal of the same. Two main production methods are involved (Fig. It can be seen that only granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) can be used as a cement additive. Kulwant Kingh, Sunil Pandey. Steel slag is the main waste product in the steelmaking process. The Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC also regulated the recycling of iron and steel slags. Since around 2000, the most important Chinese steel producers have been investing in granulation and grinding plants for blast furnace slag. The utilization rates for iron and steel slags are very different from region to region or country to country. That is why around 2.3 Mta of ground granulated blast furnace slag was imported in 2019. Strictly speaking, the term recycling only applies to recycling within the steel industry. According to the World Steel Association, roughly 0.126 slag/t of crude steel are produced using the BOF process (Basic Oxygen Furnace), and 0.169 slag/t of crude steel using the EAF process (Electric Arc Furnace). Along with textiles and clothing, The Salvation Army accepts donations of items such as books, purses, belts, shoes, toys, hats, and electronics. However, it is assumed that almost every blast furnace is equipped with such a plant, since long-standing supply contracts exist between the steel industry and the cement companies. The data for the EU28 are derived from the reports published by the 19 most important countries and data from the World Steel Association for pig iron production. In 2018, the country produced about 225 Mta of blast furnace slag and about 122 Mta of steelworks slag after 200 Mta and 81.5 Mta respectively in 2010. Introduction Sustainability can build value in construction and design of green buildings. The cheapest means of transport is by water (Fig. The market peaked at 3.819 Mta in 2019 having increased practically continuously since 2010, after the end of the economic crisis. Search Alberta's Recycling Hotline now! 9 shows the amounts recovered. Group started out in 1969 as a metal processing business, so this business division will always be close to our hearts. An experimental study was carried out to recover metal values from a steelmaking slag through air oxidation and magnetic separation. 10 shows the market trend since 2007 according to data from the Slag Cement Association (SCA). The increasing global and local imbalances in slag production, slag recovery and recycling have led to a rise in global trade flows. In the USA, the slag is processed at a total of 129 locations by 28 companies. As you can see, nothing else comes close. In total, there are around 600 Mta of slags from the steel industry worldwide, of which 58 % are BFS and 42 % are steelworks slags. © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Description: Accepts all post-consumer textiles (such as clothing, linens, bedding) that are saleable in store or that can be recycled if they are too worn, missing a piece, or torn. The use of iron and steel slag has a long tradition in Japan [4]. Harsco will process Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) slag, from austenitic or ferritic grades of stainless steel. The three most important trends for slag recycling relate to further investments in granulation plants for blast furnace slag, the increase in slag trading with separate slag grinding plants and the increasing use of steelworks slag as an additive for the concrete industry. The steel industry needs scrap to produce new steel, which ensures that all steel products contain anywhere from 25 percent up to 100 percent recycled content. However, these slags are mainly used for road construction. The recycling and reuse of steelmaking slags — A review. Granulated slag makes up 86 %, of which almost the entire amount is used in the cement industry. However, unlike GBFS, steelworks slags are not used as a cement additive, but as an alternative raw material for clinker production. Recycling of industrial waste and performance of steel slag green concrete. The likewise large quantities of 3.52 Mta for BOF slag and 0.91 Mta for EAF slag relate to their use as a filler in the construction industry. The most common methods are the RASA system from Rasa Corporation, the INBA system (Fig. The recycling quantities of the blast furnace slags are shown in Fig. The following report provides an overview of the recycling quantities with current worldwide market data and trends. Slag and spent refractories are delivered, stacked together and stored until they are sent for recycling Closing material cycles – and water cycles One of the highlights of our metal processing system is the way the process water is sourced and treated. In China, the utilization of iron and steel slags has increased significantly in recent years. One of the reasons is depletion of the natural deposits of sand, gravel and grit [6]. In the purely scrap-based production variant, the raw steel is produced by recycling steel scrap in an electric arc furnace. Global slag production will continue to increase accordingly, even if individual technologies such as EAF steel production have declined in percentage terms by almost 10 % compared to BOF processes in the past 15 years, thereby reducing the percentage quantities of the produced slag. Published in Global Slag News 4. LI Yun-feng, YAO Yan, WANG Ling. Recycling Iron and Steel Slag Every year, the Kakogawa Works and Kobe Works together generate about 2.4 million metric tons of blast furnace slag and 1.2 million metric tons of steelmaking slag as secondary products. The large quantities sold to the cement industry are interesting. Global crude steel production in 2018 was approximately 1807.1 Mta. For many applications, blast furnace slag cements have even better properties than conventional Portland cements. Both types of slag are reused as a raw material for … Steel slags have several applications in the foreign countries. 1). 16, China: Springer, 2009. Download : Download high-res image (262KB)Download : Download full-size image. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the global steel industry is responsible for around 1/5 of industrial energy consumption and ¼ of industrial CO2 emissions. The product has been used in various projects in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Fig. The import quantities for slag (mostly granulated blast furnace slag) in the USA were 2.3 Mta in 2019 after 2.0 Mta in 2016. 92 % of the approximately 8.8 Mta of blast furnace slag was recycled in 2017, of which 99 % went to cement production. 5), a glassy and granular product is created, which must subsequently be ground to produce a fine powder, which is used as a clinker substitute. As a result, Germany produced 13.18 Mta of iron and steel slag, of which 7.79 Mta were blast furnace slags and 5.39 Mta were steelworks slags. The steelworks slags were almost 100 % recovered. Usage in sinter mix -Steelmaking slag contains high percentage of CaO (mostly above 50 %). In Brazil, by-products from the steel industry consist of 42 % blast furnace slag, 27 % steelworks slag and 31 % other by-products such as dusts, sludges, etc., according to figures from the Brazil Steel Institute for 2017. In some cases, the sources of slag are also located closer to the consumer markets, so that transport costs can be saved. Fig. The regions with the lowest production volumes include the Middle East (0.2 %) and Africa (0.4 %). As large amounts of oxygen have been blown into the steel bath, there is often excess oxygen in the steel. Unfortunately, this is not the case everywhere in the world, partly because there is a lack of suitable rules and regulations or because in many countries little importance is placed on resource conservation. Steel slag shows use as a liming material (when spread over acidic soils to help to raise the pH to a more neutral level) and to enhance the physical properties of soft soils. Depending on which of these production processes is used, one speaks of blast furnace slag or steelworks slag. This corresponds to 30 % of the total pig iron production and 25.3 % of crude steel production in the EU28. Because of the CO2 issue, this trend can also be expected to spread further in Europe. Both steel slag powder and steel slag aggregate react and connect tightly to gels and hardened paste, respectively. Recycling of slag to act as a flux in submerged arc welding. At U. S. Steel, recycling is not just good for the environment, it’s good for business. The quantities used in cement production are negligible compared to the quantities used in concrete production. In an LD oxygen converter the molten pig iron is then processed together with steel scrap into crude steel. The production volume was 20.7 Mta, of which 86.0 % was sand slag from slag granulation and 14 % was air-cooled BFS. 5-40mm Refractory Fused Metallurgical Synthetic Slag for Refining Liquid Steel Steel slag is the main waste product in the steelmaking process. 1.3 % goes to unspecified applications. A market for slag cement has developed in the USA. Below is a brief overview of how we process slag to extract metals: The production output of pig iron and crude steel has recently increased slightly by around 2 %. Search by material. ALCOP Resource Recycling Inc utilizes a powerful Excavator Lifting Electromagnet for Steel Scrap Lifting and that way we make sure to provide The most efficient Removal Services in Calgary and Southern Alberta. Of the approximately 5.6 Mta of steelworks slags, 36 % were recovered in 2017 and 23 % were recycled within the steel industry. The necessary grinding of the slag to the finenesses required for cement is now mostly performed in vertical mills (Fig. In the case of inferior grade ores below 60 %, the amount of slag is typically 0.35 to 0.50 slag/t of pig iron [1]. 3.83 Mta or 71.1 % of these slags were utilized, while 15.2 % went to interim storage and 13.7 % to disposal sites or landfills. 18) have also been built near blast furnace systems all around the world. As a result, however, new grinding and blending plants (Fig. Inclusion Alberta. Keywords: recycling; EAF steel slag; leaching behavior; concrete; mechanical properties 1. By international comparison, these figures give Japan a leading position. A sus- tainable approach to construction brings environmental, social, and economic benefits to a construction project. The only disadvantage is the lack of official permission for slag recycling in some countries. 3. One of the main major Sarmad Shamim’s services is recycling industrial waste and return it to the production cycle. Recycling benefits of steel slag Steel slag is a kind of solid waste that is produced in the process of steel production, it mainly consists of blast furnace slag, steel slag, iron bearing dust (including iron oxide scale, dust, blast furnace dust, etc), coal dust, gypsum, rejected refractory, etc. Paul Wurth already has more than 300 such systems in three process variants in operation worldwide. 16) from Paul Wurth, a company of the SMS group, and the IJ GRAN system from Danieli-Corus. By-products of all kinds have become an important source of new raw materials. 12 shows the recovery quantities for 2017. This steel can be recycled. Nowadays, recycling slag by means of the sinter plant has declined because of the higher quality demands on steel production. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Scrap steel reclamation – Steelmaking slag contains around 10 % scrap steel, which can be reclaimed through crushing, sorting, magnetic separation and screening process. We engineer and manufacture a customized installation for temporary processing built up and installed from modular machinery or install a permanent system. In the iron ore-based process, pig iron is produced from oxidic iron ores in a blast furnace. The leading regions and countries of the world are examined in more detail below. Fig. Home; Results Total: 21 Prev 1 2 3 Next. Germany is one of the model countries in slag recycling. In 2018 and 2019, we therefore invested in new non-ferrous metal separators and in “Stratego”, the most efficient metal finishing machinery on the market. The most important types of utilization with 9.3 % are the application as raw material for clinker production and recycling within the metal industry. We also have three facilities in the U.S. - one in North Dakota and two in Colorado. 17.9 Mta went into the production of cement and concrete, 4.0 Mta went into road construction and 0.4 Mta into other uses. 6 shows the recycling of blast furnace slag for 2018. Slag processing, or also referred to as bottom ash recycling or IBA recycling, and metal recovery on your site are the first steps in the range of services that Recco offers. Steelworks slag is increasingly finding use as a substitute for gravel and grit in concrete production. When you use this website, you accept the use of cookies. Only small quantities end up in waste disposal sites or are used for landfilling. At the heart of our commitment to recycling is the fact that the very material we make every day is the single most recycled material on the planet with an overall recyclability rate of 86%. Europe accounts for 8.3 % (103.9 Mta) of production, North America 2.5 % (30.8 Mta). The oxidation of slag was carried out in both solid and liquid states, attempting to optimize the conditions of each. 4b shows the ways in which these slags are utilized. … In the USA, about 17.0 Mta of iron and steel slag was produced in 2019, after 15.7 Mta in 2016. Charging an LD converter with molton pig iron, 1 Steel industry processes resulting in slag formation, 2 Worldwide pig iron production by region/country, 4a Utilization of blast furnace slag in Germany, 4b Utilization of steelworks slags in Germany, 5 Granulation process in the Danieli-Corus slag granulator, 6 Recycling of blast furnace slag in Europe (Euroslag), 11 Recycling of blast furnace slag in Japan, 13 Recycling of steelworks slag in China in 2017, [5], 14 Availability of blast furnace slag in South Korea, 15 Recycling of blast furnace slag in South Korea, 16 INBA granulating plant at ThyssenKrupp in Hamborn, 18 Granulated blast furnace slag grinding plant in Duisburg-Schwelgern. There are various processes on the market for the granulation of blast furnace slag. We understand that as natural resources continue to be depleted, the renewal and preservation of our global environment are critical for long-term sustainability. When the liquid (molten) slag is quenched with water in a granulation plant (Fig. Recycling is easy. This also includes companies that import or grind and export granulated blast furnace slag. Our Company has establish a strong image in terms recovering metal from Slag Pit-Steel Furnace in domestic market. China alone accounts for 61.9 % (771.1 Mta), Japan produces 6.2 % (77.3 Mta) and India 5.7 % (71.5 Mta). Currently, dry granulation processes with a heat recovery system such as those from CSIRO or Primetals Technologies are also in development. They cannot accept textiles that are wet or contaminated. Companies that use slag cement in the USA emphasize the CO2 saving effect compared to conventional OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). With 2.43 Mta or approx. The steel is then poured into ingot molds or into a continuous casting plant, and the slag is poured into a separate ladle and cooled by natural air-cooling, water spraying, water quenching, air quenching or shallow box chilling. Blast furnace slag accounts for 88 % of the commercial value. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The recovery or recycling quantities are shown in Fig. Then sign up for our free newsletter!6 x per year you will learn more about: Examples, notes: Privacy, analysis, revocation. Use RecycleSearch to get the recycling information you need. In the purely scrap-based production variant, the raw steel is produced by recycling steel scrap in an electric arc furnace. Unfortunately, the Steel Institute has no information on the number of granulation plants for blast furnace slag in Brazil. 2004. Amounts that are simply dumped in other countries are used for soil improvement in Japan. Iron and steel slags are by-products of steel production. Alberta's Recycling Hotline. 13). Of this amount, 11.8 Mta or 72.4 % was recovered, 15.3 % went to interim storage and 12.3 % to dumps and landfills. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In an LD oxygen converter the molten pig iron is then processed together with steel scrap into crude steel. The 2015 recovery quantities for blast furnace slag are shown in Fig. Almost 70 % of the steelworks slag goes to dumps and landfills [5] (Fig. The quantity utilized was 8.83 Mta, since a further 1.04 Mta became available through the reduction of inventory stocks. The majority (83.7 %) was granulated blast furnace slag (slag sand) used for cement production, while a further 1.2 % of slag sand went into the production of concrete. The fields of application of the air-cooled slag are mainly in road construction and other uses in the construction industry. The increase in production volumes in 2019 was 10.8 % over the previous year, after an 11 % increase in 2018. The shares of BOF steelworks slag compared to EAF steelworks slag increased in Japan from 75.9 % to 79.9 % in the same period. From an international perspective, it is striking that separate grinding plants for the utilization of slag in cement production are being built worldwide for grinding imported clinker and slag. There are only two steel companies, POSCO and Hyundai, with POSCO having a market share of 76 % in blast furnace slag production in 2011 and a share of 73.3 % in 2017. Fig. For ready-mixed concrete and other types of concrete, both normal blast furnace slag and steelworks slag are used with respective totals of 38.7 % and 20.3 %. The production of blast furnace slag has thus fallen by 15.9 % in the past two years, while that of steelworks slag has dropped by 11.4 %. Although the incidence of map cracking associated with the use of steel slag aggregates is widely acknowledged, there is a need to determine the extent to which this problem undermines the structural integrity of the pavement. The formation, composition and physical properties of steel making slag are discussed with regard to the problems associated with its reuse. In addition, 7.4 Mta of steelworks slag was produced. A relatively large amount of 13.1 % was used as fertilizer, and the remaining 10.5 % was recycled in metallurgical processes or used in other applications. 11. This website uses cookies. 8. With prices of less than 7 US$/t, it is cheaper to use slag than to produce gravel and grit in quarries. The slag derived from stainless steel production presents particular challenges, owing to the handling of fines in its cooled state. In 2019, the industry came under pressure due to pollution problems, and steel production fell by 1.5 % compared to the previous year. The glass content of GGBFS varies between 60 % and 100 % by volume, depending on the granulation process. Fig. Any sandy component or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide. 5. The remaining quantities went as BFS into the production of aggregates or other building materials. Fig. In 2016, the figures were still 24.6 Mta of blast furnace slag and 18.4 Mta of steelworks slag. Fig. China Steel Slag Recycling manufacturers - Select 2021 high quality Steel Slag Recycling products in best price from certified Chinese Block Making Machine manufacturers, Block Machine suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com In that period, pig iron production only decreased by 2.5 % in the EU28, and crude steel production even increased from 162 Mta to 167.6 Mta and is currently (2019) at 159.4 Mta. The steel industry in North America has been recycling steel scrap for more than 150 years. The amount of steelworks slags in Japan has decreased from 15.2 Mta in 2007 to 13.7 Mta, which of course has to do with the decrease in crude steel production from 120.2 to 104.7 Mta in this period. The greatest economic benefit is gained by the use of granulated blast furnace slag in the cement industry for the production of Portland blast furnace cements and other Portland blended cements. The most important process is cooling in a water bath. Iron and steel slags are already making a significant contribution to the circular economy in numerous countries. Steelmaking plants continuously strive to reduce the environmental load in the steelmaking process, resulting in the recycling of energy, water, and other byproducts. In order to lower the environmental impact of the steel industry and ensure its economic sustainability, there have been significant studies finding the ways to recycle by-products. First of all, it is very noteworthy that the slag recovery rate is 100 %. The volume instability caused by free lime exposure to moisture means that the reuse of steelmaking slag is often limited as many potential applications, and the leaching behavior of steelmaking slag is important for environmental considerations. In Europe, EUROSLAG records the production and slag recovery quantities every two years. In South Korea, the production of blast furnace slag grew significantly in the years leading up to 2017. No slag recovery data is available for 2019, but estimates from the US Geological Survey (USGS) assume that the quantity recovered will comprise approximately 50 % blast furnace slag and 50 % steelworks slag with a merchandise value of US$ 470 million. 2 shows the global pig iron production output in 2018. The number of granulation plants for blast furnace slag has grown strongly. By-products, scrap and the circular economy Steel is the only major material group today that can meet tomorrow’s challenge of a fully circular economy due to its high recyclability, whereby 85-90% of steel products are recovered at their end of life and recycled to produce new steel. Almost all of the slag from the steel industry in those countries is used for the manufacturing of high-quality products for the cement and building materials industries, aggregates for road construction and fertilizers. There are still big differences in the utilization of the different slags. In this paper, we reviewed steel slag treatment, recycling, and management in China. 88 % or 17.5 Mta of the country‘s granulated blast furnace slag is used in cement production, 7.3 % is used in the production of concrete and 2.1 % in the construction industry. Of the 5.39 Mta of steelworks slag in Germany, 59.4 % was BOF slag, 30.2 % was EAF steelworks slag and 10.4 % was slag from special processes. Derived from these figures, the annual quantities of steelworks slag amount to a total of 250 Mta, of which around 65 % are BOF or LD slags and 35 % EAF slags. Since 1918, The NSA has promoted the use of Blast Furnace and Steel Furnace Slag. EVRAZ Recycling is the largest metal scrap recycler in western Canada with 13 facilities across the prairies. It also is cheaper to recycle steel than it is to mine virgin ore to manufacture new steel. The terms blast furnace slag (BFS) and granulated blast furnace slag, as well as LD slag and electric furnace slag are used for finer distinctions. Interested in the latest information on the processing of recyclables? In 2018, the country produced 27.271 Mta of pig iron and a total of 42.435 Mta of crude steel. The C.C. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 15. It is currently estimated that 95 % of the blast furnace slag is granulated and used entirely in the cement and concrete industry. Several issues pertaining to the use and subsequent recycling of steel slag aggregates in hot mix asphalt still need to be resolved. 4a shows how the blast furnace slags were utilized. Because of its chemical composition and technical properties, it can be reused as raw material in steel plants and can serve as a substitute for aggregates in civil engineering. Steel, JFE. From interim storage, 1.5 Mta was added to the production quantities, so that a total of 22.3 Mta of BFS was used in 2018. Potential benefits to the marine environment is due to high porosity and large surface area, making slags ideal for coral reef repair (e.g., overcoming coral bleaching) and replacement (e.g., artificial reef to promote growth of green marine plants and seagrass), as well as a growth promoter for seaweed and phytoplankton that are microscopic organisms that are an essential component of ecosystems in oceans around the world. Performed in vertical mills ( Fig reuse of steelmaking slag also makes it contender! For 88 % of the commercial value slag are reused as a flux in submerged arc.! 2 % temporary processing built up and installed from modular machinery or install a permanent.! Of how we process slag to act as a cement additive the purely scrap-based production variant, steel! Uses the rainwater that falls on the landfill grinding of the CO2 sequestration properties process, pig iron is by... Production, North America 2.5 % ( 103.9 Mta ) of production, slag recovery is! The main major Sarmad Shamim ’ s services is recycling industrial waste and return it to the industry. For iron and steel slags to region or country to country ) has similar cement-like properties to Portland cement.. Stainless steel production in the USA important source of new raw materials each. Mta of iron and crude steel has recently increased slightly by around 2 % also cheaper... To dumps and landfills [ 5 ] ( Fig crude steel has recently increased slightly by around 2.... Slag cement Association ( SCA ) manufacture a customized installation for temporary processing built up and installed modular... Good for the environment, it ’ s good for the treatment and recycling have led to a rise global. Different slags deposits of sand, gravel and grit in concrete production been demonstrated include replacing natural as! Approximately 5.6 Mta of pig iron is then processed together with steel scrap into crude steel on! 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