The dense vegetation and narrow paths made the city easy to defend against attacks. By the last half of the 19th century Great Britain had come to want a closer relationship with the Kingdom of Benin; for British officials were increasingly interested in controlling trade in the area and in accessing the kingdom's rubber resources to support their own growing tire market. A strong mercantile relationship developed, with the Edo trading slaves and tropical products such as ivory, pepper and palm oil for European goods such as manillas and guns. The Kingdom of Benin, (also known as the Edo Kingdom, or the Benin Empire) was a kingdom in West Africa in what is now southern Nigeria. Another description given around 1600, one hundred years after Pereira's description, is by the Dutch explorer Dierick Ruiters.[9]. Formations were broken down into sub-units under designated commanders. The Benin Kingdom was "one of the oldest and most highly developed states in the coastal hinterland of West Africa". The Oba title was created by Oba Oranmiyan, the first Oba of Benin Empire who is also a grand son of Oduduwa, the first Oni of Ile-Ife. The Walls of Benin are a series of earthworks made up of banks and ditches, called Iya in the Edo language in the area around present-day Benin City, the capital of present-day Edo, Nigeria. Thus, he gave rise to the tradition of the subsequent Obas of Benin spending seven days and nights at Usama before proceeding to announce their royal names at Useh. You can add the first. Another Dutch traveler, David van Nyendael, visited Benin in 1699 and also wrote an account of the kingdom. Moreover, it would also set in motion the events to come that would lead to Oba Ovonramwen's demise. The god, named Ogiuwu, was worshipped at a special altar in the centre of Benin City. The kingdom of Benin began in the 900s when the Edo people settled in the rainforests of West Africa. Tradition asserts that the Edo people became dissatisfied with the rule of a dynasty of semimythical kings, the ogisos, and in the 13th century they invited Prince Oranmiyan of Ife to rule The URL of this site will be included automatically. You are not allowed to alter any portion of the link code or change the layout or targeting for any reason. [5] Nearly 36 known Ogiso are accounted for as rulers of this initial incarnation of the state. Benin, country of western Africa. Scattered pieces of the structure remain in Edo, with the vast majority of them being used by the locals for building purposes. Follow relate airport hotel guides for accommodation booking. Map of Benin City area hotels: Locate Benin City hotels on a map based on popularity, price, or availability, and see Tripadvisor reviews, photos, and deals. The first European travelers to reach Benin were Portuguese explorers under João Afonso de Aveiro in about 1485. Though, when one is willing to accept these customs, they are very easy-going and will cooperate in every way possible to reach an agreement. Connah estimated that its construction if spread out over five dry seasons, would have required a workforce of 1,000 laborers working ten hours a day seven days a week. Indiana University Press, 1999. Given this characterization of the Benin culture, it might be understood that the Oba did not accept any colonial aspirations. The monarch of the realm served as supreme military commander. The Metropolitan and Royal regiments were relatively stable semi-permanent or permanent formations. These findings indicate that human sacrifice took place in Benin City since the thirteenth century CE. Dahomey bore no relation to the Benin empire. At the end of the 19th century, the Kingdom of Benin had managed to retain its independence and the Oba exercised a monopoly over trade which the British found irksome. The ritual recalled a mythical war against the sky. The official capital is Porto-Novo, but Cotonou is Benin’s largest city, its chief port, and its de facto administrative capital. Alun R. Rees. You can be the first. In its hay days, its influence spread right across the West African coast. [37], Benin's tactics were well organized, with preliminary plans weighed by the Oba and his sub-commanders. Many photos and unbiased Benin-City hotel reviews written by real guests are provided to help you make your booking decision. Thanks to the many inland and riverside tourism option available to visitors. Oba Ewuare, the first Golden Age Oba, is credited with turning Benin City into a city-state from a military fortress built by the Ogisos, protected by moats and walls. p. 20. [39] The example of Benin shows the power of indigenous military systems, but also the role outside influences and new technologies brought to bear. You can add the first. The buildings are of different sizes however, resting on wooden pillars, from top to bottom lined with copper casts, on which pictures of their war exploits and battles are engraved. [29] It also conquered what eventually became the city of Lagos hundreds of years before the British took over in 1851.[30]. [25], In Benin, the Oba was seen as divine. The first Ogiso (Ogiso Igodo), wielded much influence and gained popularity as a good ruler. Ivory mask representing Queen Idia, Iyoba of Benin City (16th Century) Today, I would like to tell you about Benin City, the great city at the heart of the Benin Kingdom.. A fanciful engraving of the settlement was made by a Dutch illustrator (from descriptions alone) and was shown in Olfert Dapper's Naukeurige beschrijvinge der Afrikaensche gewesten, published in Amsterdam in 1668. The location of each Benin-City hotel listed is shown on the detailed zoomable map. 54–62, E.G. The mother held a considerable amount of power; she was, however, never allowed to meet her son — who was now a divine ruler — again. Below is a list of kings (both Ogiso and Oba) of the Benin Empire. Art, Innovation, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Benin. Progress was made finally in 1892 during the visit of Vice-Consul Henry Galway. It was formed around the 11th century AD",[2] and lasted until it was annexed by the British Empire in 1897. [34] In his description, Nyendael states the following about the character of the Benin people: The inhabitants of the Benin are in general a kind and polite people, of whom one with kindness might get everything he desires. With new GoogLe Earth plugin you can enjoy the interactive Benin-City 3D map within your web browser. They consist of 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) of city iya and an estimated 16,000 kilometres (9,900 miles) in the rural area around Benin. However, they want their politeness to be returned with likewise courtesy as well, without the appearance of any disappointment or rudeness, and rightly so. Thirteen years after Ewuare's death, tales of Benin's splendors lured more Portuguese traders to the city gates. No users is registered to this place. The people and royal kingmakers preferred their late king's son as the next to rule. As soon as the Oba began to suspect Britain of larger colonial designs, it ceased communications with them until the British Expedition in 1896-97, when troops of that country captured, burned, and looted Benin City as part of a punitive mission, which brought the kingdom's imperial era to an end. Fred Pearce wrote in New Scientist: They extend for some 16,000 km in all, in a mosaic of more than 500 interconnected settlement boundaries. (It is entirely separate from the Republic of Benin, which was then known as Dahomey.) users registered in this area . The exiled Prince Ekaladerhan had by this time changed his name to Izoduwa (meaning 'I have chosen the path of prosperity') and found his way to Ile-Ife. Maplandia.com is not sponsored by or affiliated with Google. No placemark has been added to this place yet. Benin kingdom/Edo State has become a year-round tourist attraction. In order to gain improved trading and security, some of the villages made a decision to join together as a conglomerate around AD 900. Oduduwa, who could not return due to his advanced age, granted them Oranmiyan, his grandson, to rule over them. A punitive expedition was launched in 1897. 102–4. A Brief History The kingdom of Benin was established in 40BC and was at its height and glory between the 14th and the 16th centuries. Excavations also uncovered a rural network of earthen walls 6,000 to 13,000 km (4,000 to 8,000 mi) long that would have taken an estimated 150 million man-hours to build and must have taken hundreds of years to build. [42] Although some suggest that humanitarian motivations were driving Britain's actions,[43] letters written between administrators suggest that economic motivations were predominant. You may also enter an additional message that will be also included in the e-mail. [13] It is unknown whether slavery or some other type of labour was used in the construction of the walls. It was only at this time that the administrative centre of the kingdom began to be referred to as Ubinu after the Portuguese word and corrupted to Bini by the Itsekhiri, Urhobo and Edo who all lived together in the royal administrative centre of the kingdom. [19], Forty-one female skeletons thrown into a pit were discovered by the archaeologist Graham Connah. Hier sollte eine Beschreibung angezeigt werden, diese Seite lässt dies jedoch nicht zu. The Kingdom of Ife, located in today’s Nigeria like t… Benin is one of nearly 200 countries illustrated on our Blue Ocean Laminated Map of the World. recommend this page. One of those unique things was their art. The people developed some unique things as their civilization developed. Learn more about the history, geography, and culture of Benin in this article. Choose Benin-City car hire supplier according to your preferences. No middlemen. Maplandia.com in partnership with Booking.com offers highly competitive rates for all types of hotels in Benin-City, from affordable family hotels to the most luxurious ones. Benin's queen mother, the Iyoba, also retained her own regiment - the "Queen's Own". [41] Gallwey was able to get Omo n’Oba (Ovonramwen) and his chiefs to sign a treaty which gave Britain legal justification for exerting greater influence over the Empire. Benin’s population is 8.8 million and it has a surface area of 11,000 sq km (42,000 sq mi). [22], Sacrifices of a man, a woman, a goat, a cow and a ram were also made to a god quite literally called "the king of death." Register at Benin-City or add new placemark for Benin-City.Get your personal map homepage and much more for free. Following that came attempts to establish a treaty between Benin and the United Kingdom by Hewtt, Blair and Annesley in 1884, 1885 and 1886 respectively. However, domesticated animals, from the forest and surrounding areas, could not survive, due to a disease spread by tsetse flies; after centuries of exposure, some animals, such as cattle and goat, developed a resistance to the disease.[4]. The most well-known artifact is based on Queen Idia, now best known as the FESTAC Mask after its use in 1977 in the logo of the Nigeria-financed and hosted Second Festival of Black & African Arts and Culture (FESTAC 77). After the Kingdom of Benin began trading with Europeans at the end of the 15th century CE, the quantity of bronze castings and thickness of casting had greatly increased; before trade with Europeans, the blades were incredibly thin and only wealthy elites could afford work with these metals that were regarded as precious. The Origin and Settling Down of the Edo", "Conservation Management of the Benin Earthworks of Southern Nigeria: A critical review of past and present action plans", "Two thousand years of West African history", http://www.beninmoatfoundation.org/clarioncall.html, "Story of cities #5: Benin City, the mighty medieval capital now lost without trace", "A homoarchic alternative to the homoarchic state: Benin Kingdom of the 13th–19th centuries", "The Benin Kingdom (13th – 19th centuries) as a megacommunity", The Story of Africa: Ife and Benin — BBC World Service, The origin of Edos/Binis {source Edoworld}, THE MILITARY SYSTEM OF BENIN KINGDOM, c. 1440–1897, Kingdom of Benin Blogs: Fiction, Myths and Lies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kingdom_of_Benin&oldid=998146639, Historic buildings and structures in Nigeria, States and territories established in 1180, States and territories disestablished in 1897, Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox family with unknown parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Wir verwenden Cookies und ähnliche Tools, um Ihr Einkaufserlebnis zu verbessern, um unsere Dienste anzubieten, um zu verstehen, wie die Kunden unsere Dienste nutzen, damit wir Verbesserungen vornehmen können, und um Werbung anzuzeigen. No added fees. Benin borders Nigeria to the east, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north, and Togo to the west. You can be the first. They took an estimated 150 million hours of digging to construct, and are perhaps the largest single archaeological phenomenon on the planet. Most of the buildings within this court are covered with palm leaves, instead of with square planks, and every roof is adorned with a small spired tower, on which casted copper birds are standing, being very artfully sculpted and lifelike with their wings spread. Some residents of Benin City could still speak a pidgin Portuguese in the late 19th century. However, these efforts did not yield any results. He gave them charmed seeds known as "omo ayo" to play with, saying that to do so will make him talk. [7][8], The Benin City walls have been known to Westerners since around 1500. It was from this bastion that he launched his military campaigns and began the expansion of the kingdom from the Edo-speaking heartlands. He named the kingdom “Igodomigodo”. Ruiters' account of the walls is as follows: At the gate where I entered on horseback, I saw a very high bulwark, very thick of earth, with a very deep broad ditch, but it was dry, and full of high trees... That gate is a reasonable good gate, made of wood in their manner, which is to be shut, and there always there is watch holden.[11]. By the seventeenth century, the kingdom fell into decline following constant civil wars and disputes over the kingship. [40] With better tools to use in agriculture, crop yields improved. Beneath him were subordinate generalissimos, the Ezomo, the Iyase, and others who supervised a Metropolitan Regiment based in the capital, and a Royal Regiment made up of hand-picked warriors that also served as bodyguards. [38], Until the introduction of guns in the 15th century, traditional weapons like the spear, short sword, and bow held sway. At the end of each series of rites, the current Oba's own father was honoured with a public festival. It was during this period of confusion in Benin that the elders, led by Chief Oliha, mounted a search for the banished Prince Ekaladerhan - whom the Ife people now called Oduduwa. G. Kind – 1746 – Old. Benin arose as a city-state in the late 1100s or 1200s and expanded into a larger kingdom or empire in the mid-1400s. What remains of the wall itself continues to be torn down for real estate developments. This is a normal pattern among many nations. He says that all of the evidence "points to a limited, ritual custom of human sacrifice." The Benin Empire made great achievements in science, administration, technology, architecture, astronomy and town-planning, but it is most famous for its amazing artworks. Oranmiyan went on to serve as the founder of the Oyo Empire, where he ruled as the first Alaafin of Oyo. See Benin-City photos and images from satellite below, explore the aerial photographs of Benin-City in Nigeria. [22], By the end of the eighteenth century, three to four people were sacrificed at the mouth of the Benin River annually, to attract European trade. In 1603–04 for example, European cannon helped batter and destroy the gates of a town near present-day Lagos, allowing 10,000 warriors of Benin to enter and conquer it. Benin [beˈniːn] (französisch Bénin [beˈnɛ̃]) ist ein Staat in Westafrika.Er grenzt im Westen an Togo, im Norden an Burkina Faso und Niger, im Osten an Nigeria und im Süden an den Golf von Guinea, genauer die Bucht von Benin.. Bis 1975 hieß das Land Dahomey.Die Bezeichnung steht in Tradition zum historischen Königreich Dahomey, das bis zur Eroberung durch die Franzosen Ende des 19. However, in the 15th century the African kingdom of Danhomey rose up. After British consul Richard Burton visited Benin in 1862 he wrote of Benin's as a place of "gratuitous barbarity which stinks of death", a narrative which was widely publicized in Britain and increased pressure for the territory's subjugation. [3], Benin City (formerly Edo) sprang up by around 1000, in a forest that could be easily defended. The Benin Kingdom was "one of the oldest and most highly developed states in the coastal hinterland of West Africa". Substantial inco… The reservation system is secure and your personal information and credit card is encrypted. He commented that "When Europeans first came to Africa, they considered the architecture very disorganised and thus primitive. The little Eweka played with the seeds with his peers at Useh near egor, his mother's hometown. The walls were built of a ditch and dike structure; the ditch dug to form an inner moat with the excavated earth used to form the exterior rampart. When you find a deal you want, we provide link to the airline or travel agent to make your booking directly with them. The kingdom of Biafra and Benin … Before trade and contact with Europeans, supplies of metal were very scarce in Benin and writing was not present. Benin is a West African country officially known as the Republic of Benin. Booking.com, being established in 1996, is longtime Europe’s leader in online hotel reservations. [20] From the early days, human sacrifices were a part of the state religion. In carrying out the royal order that he be killed, the palace messengers had mercy and set the prince free at Ughoton near Benin. By the 1400s they had created a wealthy kingdom with a powerful ruler, known as the Oba. Benin. Whatever might be offered to them out of politeness, will always be doubled in return. If the eldest son failed to complete these tasks, the eldest son might be disqualified from becoming king. This was out of frustration as he often expressed that "only a child born, trained and educated in the arts and mysteries of the land could reign over the people". Oranmiyan was resisted by Ogiamien Irebor, one of the palace chiefs, and took up his abode in the palace built for him at Usama by the elders (now a coronation shrine). While the head-on clash was well known, documentation from the 18th century shows greater emphasis on avoiding continuous battle lines, and more effort to encircle an enemy (ifianyako). Reporting on the abortive Expedition into Benin. Administrative Map of Benin Benin Country Profile Map of Africa External Links: Archives Nationale du Benin The not well maintained page provides some general informations on Benin and offers collections, publications and some photos. October 2001; Project: The Benin Kingdom: An Institutional History; Authors: Peter M. Roese. Benin City before 1897: A Town Map and a Map of the Palace Area with Description. Welcome to the Benin-City google satellite map! Benin, one of the principal historic kingdoms of the western African forest region (fl. Wählen Sie Ihre Cookie-Einstellungen. His son the new king was soon found to be deaf and dumb, and so the elders appealed to Oranmiyan. [14] It began in BCE times and was not conquered until the 1800s by the British. Car rental offices nearest to Benin-City the city centre. As payment, the Europeans received items, such as palm oil and bundles of pepper. This map shows a combination of political and physical features. [21], Humans were sacrificed in an annual ritual in honour of the god of iron, where warriors from Benin City would perform an acrobatic dance while suspended from the trees. 13th–19th century). Benin’s tropical climate leads it to highly depend on agriculture. Before the coming of the gun, guilds of blacksmiths were charged with war production—particularly swords and iron spearheads. Benin Kingdom began as a group of small villages situated in the rainforests of West Africa. The rulers in Bini kingdom during the first dynasty were called “Ogiso”. The territory was coveted by an influential group of investors for its rich natural resources such as palm-oil, rubber and ivory. Benin ruled over the tribes of the Niger Delta including the Western Igbo, Ijaw, Itshekiri, Ika, Isoko and Urhobo amongst others. Thank you for all links! The Kingdom of Benin's capital was Edo, now known as Benin City in Edo state. 'A Map Of The Kingdom Of Whidah. 1895 Sept.12. Ewuare II. It was not until the 15th century, during the reign of Oba Ewuare the Great, that the kingdom's administrative centre, the city of Ubinu (or Ibinu), began to be known as Benin City by the Portuguese, a pronunciation later adopted by the locals as well. [23], At the burial rituals of Obas, human sacrifice was present; bodyguards of the Oba include those sacrificed. [27], At its height, Benin dominated trade along the entire coastline from the Western Niger Delta, through Lagos to the kingdom of Great Accra (modern-day Ghana). The word Voodoo, variously known as Vodou, Vodun, and Vodoun, originated among the Fon people of Benin. They no longer wanted to be ruled by their kings, known as the ogisos.They asked a prince from Ife, an important West African kingdom, to take control. This was excavated in the early 1960s by Graham Connah. These were apparently raised to mark out territories for towns and cities. The Portuguese who arrived in an expedition led by Joao Afonso de Aveiro in 1485 would refer to it as Benin and the centre would become known as Benin City.[18]. In the 12th century, a great palace intrigue erupted and crown prince Ekaladerhan, the only son of the last Ogiso, was sentenced to death as a result of the first queen (who was barren) deliberately changing an oracle's message to the Ogiso. Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence, Appendix 21, House of Commons, The United Kingdom Parliament, March 2000. “Long live the king!” bellows Chief Osa, as he raises his fist. [24], The monarchy of Benin was hereditary; the eldest son was to become the new Oba. Graham, are largely exaggerated or based on rumour and speculation. 5. He died after a long reign and was succeeded by Ere, his eldest son. [15], Ethnomathematician Ron Eglash has discussed the planned layout of the city using fractals as the basis, not only in the city itself and the villages but even in the rooms of houses. [28] It was for this reason that this coastline was named the Bight of Benin. Ewuare also added great thoroughfares and erected nine fortified gateways. The pre-colonial Benin Kingdom or Empire was located in what is today southern Nigeria. Ben-Amos, Paula Girshick (1995). Get more out of Benin-City map Add placemark to Benin-City. The Guinness Book of Records (1974 edition) described the walls of Benin City and its surrounding kingdom as the world’s largest earthworks carried out prior to the mechanical era. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}6°20′N 5°37′E / 6.333°N 5.617°E / 6.333; 5.617. "The Case of Benin". You can compare offers from leading car hire suppliers like Avis, Europcar, Sixt or Thrifty as well as budget rental deals from Holiday Autos, Budget, Economy, EasyCar, or 121 carhire. According to history, the Edo people of southern Nigeria founded Benin. It is about the same size as the city of Haarlem and entirely surrounded by a special wall, comparable to the one which encircles the town. Luxury hotels (including 5 star hotels and 4 star hotels) and cheap Benin-City hotels (with best discount rates and up-to-date hotel deals) are both available in separate lists. It was tucked into the forest region of Africa. Visitors in the 16th and 19th centuries brought back to Europe tales of "Great Benin", a fabulous city of noble buildings, ruled over by a powerful king. IMPORTANT NOTE: The map search box code must be pasted directly into web pages without modification. Please choose in the list below and simply copy & paste mentioned HTML code into your page source code. [37] At the head of the host stood the Oba of Benin. Benin City, Nigeria – A wooden staff thumps on the landing in front of the temporary palace. Benin's power and wealth was continuously flourishing in the 19th century with the development of the trade in palm oil, textiles, ivory, slaves, and other resources. The kingdom covered the southern third of the modern republic of Benin, and it bore its name until 1975, when it was neutrally renamed the republic of Benin to appease the large number of ethnic groups which formed part of the relatively new state. Discovered by the distance to the east, Burkina Faso and Niger to mid-fifteenth... Google Earth plugin you can also dive right into Benin-City on unique satellite. His description by saying that there was no wall of contemporary Nigeria tools to use in agriculture, yields... Peers at Useh near egor, his eldest son we search through offers of than! ] at the burial rituals of Obas, human sacrifice took place in Benin Empire after the died! With his peers at Useh near egor, his eldest son had to bury father! 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